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This class is used to embed audio. This class is used to embed a photo slideshow. See also 'slideshow' below.

This class is used to embed a slideshow not necessarily photo but both 'slideshow' and 'pictureGallery' are used for slideshows.

This class is used to display links to a BBC bloggers main page, used in various columnist's blogs Eg.

Nick Robinson, Robert Preston. These are usually 1. Adding your favorite news website 33 calibre User Manual, Release 2.

The quotation removed is always AFAICT in the article text as well but a 2nd copy is placed in a quote tag to draw attention to it.

The quote class tags may or may not appear in div's. The purpose of these is unclear, they seem to be an internal link to a section within the article, but the text of the link Eg.

Removed to avoid clutter. The hidden class tags may or may not appear in div's. Used on the site to display text about registered users entering comments.

Used on the site to allow registered BBC users to fill in forms, typically for entering comments about an article. Used on sports pages to link to 'similar stories'.

Used on sports pages to link to pages like 'tables', 'fixtures', etc. Used sometimes instead of "featured-content" above. The purpose of some of these is not entirely clear from the pages which are a total mess!

Remove mapping based tags, Eg. TO DO: Investigate. It seems to appear alongside 'socialBookMarks' whenever that appears.

I am removing it as well under the assumption that it can appear alone as well. The worst named user created css class of all time.

The creator should immediately be fired. I've seen it used to hold nothing at all but with 20 or so empty lines in it. Also to hold a single link to another article.

Whatever it was designed to do it is not wanted by this recipe. Exact match only. Have decided to use two reg expressions to make removing this and variants robust.

Requires an exact match due to risk of matching those letters in something needed, unless I see a variation of 'nlp' used at a later date.

Variant 'mvb' has also now been seen. Requires an exact match of 'mva' or 'mvb' due to risk of matching those letters in something needed.

What I do know is it pops up frequently and it is not wanted. Whatever it is - it is not part of the article and is not wanted. Adding your favorite news website 35 calibre User Manual, Release 2.

In other words the 'print this page' address of the page. There are 3 types of urls used in the BBC site's rss feeds. There is just 1 type for the standard news while there are 2 used for sports feed urls.

Note: Sports urls are linked from regular news feeds Eg. Starson17's code has obviously been altered to suite my requirements.

Match any case of that phrase. Match any case. Adding your favorite news website 37 calibre User Manual, Release 2.

These are being matched below using 'Live - ' because removing all articles with 'live' in their titles would remove some articles that are in fact not live sports pages.

Match only the 'Quiz of the' part in anticipation of monthly and yearly variants. These are BBC sports pages which just display a cricket scorecard.

The pages have a mass of table and css entries to display the scorecards nicely. Probably could make them work with this recipe, but might take a whole day of work to sort out all the css - basically a formatting nightmare.

This recipe explores only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to the power of calibre. Real life example A reasonably complex real life example that exposes more of the API of BasicNewsRecipe is the recipe for The New York Times import string, re from calibre import strftime from calibre.

Adding your favorite news website 39 calibre User Manual, Release 2. See timefmt Seite This causes, calibre to ask for a username and password whenever you try to use this recipe.

The code in calibre. Once logged in, calibre will use the same, logged in, browser instance to fetch all content.

The next new feature is the calibre. While more complex than simply using RSS, the recipe creates an ebook that corresponds very closely to the days paper.

You can also use other, more modern parsers if you dislike BeatifulSoup. It can be used to perform arbitrary transformations on every downloaded HTML page.

Here it is used to bypass the ads that the nytimes shows you before each article. Create the recipe using your favorite python editor and save it to a file say myrecipe.

You can download content using this recipe with the command: ebook-convert myrecipe. The -vv makes ebook-convert spit out a lot of information about what it is doing.

The --test makes it download only a couple of articles from at most two feeds. Siehe auch: ebook-convert Seite The command line interface for all ebook conversion.

BasicNewsRecipe11 The source code of BasicNewsRecipe Built-in recipes12 The source code for the built-in recipes that come with calibre The calibre recipes forum13 Lots of knowledgeable calibre recipe writers hang out here.

For a tutorial introduction to creating recipes, see Adding your favorite news website Seite Adding your favorite news website 41 calibre User Manual, Release 2.

Whether the thumbnail is actually used is device dependent currently only used by the Kindles. Note that the referenced image must be one that was successfully downloaded, otherwise it will be ignored.

Use it to do any cleanup like logging out of subscription sites, etc. Cloned browsers are used for multi-threaded downloads, since mechanize is not thread safe.

The default cloning routines should capture most browser customization, but if you do something exotic in your recipe, you should override this method in your recipe and clone manually.

Cloned browser instances use the same, thread-safe CookieJar by default, unless you have customized cookie handling. This method should be called only once on a particular Recipe instance.

Calling it more than once will lead to undefined behavior. Based on the original readability algorithm by Arc Return the article URL.

It is called with article, an object representing a parsed article from a feed. See feedparser By default it looks for the original link for feeds syndicated via a service like feedburner or pheedo and if found, returns that or else returns article.

By default it returns a mechanize16 browser instance that supports cookies, ignores robots. If your recipe requires that you login first, override this method in your subclass.

By default it returns the value of the member self. If you want your recipe to download a cover for the e-book override this method in your subclass, or set the member variable self.

Each element of the list must be a 2-element tuple of the form title, url. If title is None or an empty string, the title from the feed is used.

This method is useful if your recipe needs to do some processing to figure out the list of feeds to download. If so, override in your subclass.

If you want your recipe to download a masthead for the e-book override this method in your subclass, or set the member variable self.

It should return the path to a file on the filesystem that contains the article HTML. This method is typically useful for sites that try to make it difficult to access article content automatically.

By default, raises NotImplementedError which causes the downloader to ignore it. After the login is complete, the cookies returned from the website are copied to a normal non-javascript browser and the download proceeds using those cookies.

Adding your favorite news website 43 calibre User Manual, Release 2. Return a list of Feed objects. If this function is implemented, it will be used in preference to BasicNewsRecipe.

It must return a list. It can be used to do arbitrarily powerful post-processing on the HTML.

It should return soup after processing it. It can be used to do arbitrarily powerful pre-processing on the HTML.

By default does nothing. It is meant to allow the recipe to skip ad pages. If the soup represents an ad page, return the HTML of the real page.

Otherwise return None. Returns index. If any titles in index are not in weights, they are assumed to have a weight of 0.

Return a possibly empty unicode string. Adding your favorite news website 45 calibre User Manual, Release 2.

Uses the algorithms from the readability project. Setting this to True, means that you do not have to worry about cleaning up the downloaded HTML manually though manual cleanup will always be superior.

If set to None, auto compression is disabled. In other words, this compression happens after scaling. These will override any user or plugin specified values, so only use if absolutely necessary.

Overriding this in your recipe instructs calibre to render the downloaded cover into a frame whose width and 46 Kapitel 1.

The argument may be a floating point number to indicate a more precise time. This will be used primarily in a GUI that presents a list of recipes.

The most common being specifying latin1 and using cp If None, try to detect the encoding. If it is a callable, the callable is called with two arguments: The recipe object and the source to be decoded.

It must return the decoded source. Only one of BasicNewsRecipe. For the format for specifying a tag see BasicNewsRecipe.

Must be an ISO code either two or three characters long 1. Adding your favorite news website 47 calibre User Manual, Release 2.

Override this in your recipe to provide a url to use as a masthead. For most feeds, you should use BasicNewsRecipe. In days. Each element of the list should be a two element tuple.

The first element of the tuple should be a compiled regular expression and the second a callable that takes a single match object and returns a string to replace the match.

If set to None, no publication type metadata will be written to the opf file. Specified tags are removed from downloaded HTML.

Ignored if no output profile is set. Set to 1 if the server is picky. Automatically reduced to 1 if BasicNewsRecipe. Adding your favorite news website 49 calibre User Manual, Release 2.

If None, then the default guessing is used. If True then the we always assume the feeds has embedded content and if False we always assume the feed does not have embedded content.

This is needed for some websites that require the use of javascript to login. Dieses zeigt eine eine Liste der Abschnitte im Buch.

Durch Kapitel 1. Die in diesem Stylesheet festgelegten Einstellungen werden auf jedes Buch angewendet. Die Definition wird in einem kleinen Feld am unteren Rand des Bildschirms angezeigt.

Normally, you just add a book to calibre, click convert and calibre will try hard to generate output that is as close as possible to the input.

However, calibre accepts a very large number of input formats, not all of which are as suitable as others for conversion to ebooks.

In the case of such input formats, or if you just want greater control over the conversion system, calibre has a lot of options to fine tune the conversion process.

You can then use the edited ebook as input for conversion into other formats in calibre. This document will refer mainly to the conversion settings as found in the conversion dialog, pictured below.

All these settings are also available via command line interface to conversion, documented at ebook-convert Seite In calibre, you can obtain help on any individual setting by holding your mouse over it, a tooltip will appear describing the setting.

Ebook Conversion 53 calibre User Manual, Release 2. This HTML is then transformed. The results of the conversion can vary greatly, based on the input format.

Some formats convert much better than others. A list of the best source formats for conversion is available here Seite There are various transforms, for example, to insert book metadata as a page at the start of the book, to detect chapter headings and automatically create a Table of Contents, to proportionally adjust font sizes, et cetera.

You can see this process in action by using the debug option. Just specify the path to a directory for the debug output.

During conversion, calibre will place the XHTML generated by the various stages of the conversion pipeline in different sub-directories.

The four sub-directories are: 1. Ebook Conversion 55 calibre User Manual, Release 2. Use this to debug the Input Plugin. Use to debug structure detection.

Post structure detection, but before CSS flattening and font size conversion. Use to debug font size conversion and CSS transforms.

Just before the ebook is passed to the output plugin. Use to debug the Output Plugin. If you want to edit the input document a little before having calibre convert it, the best thing to do is edit the files in the input sub-directory, then zip it up, and use the zip file as the input format for subsequent conversions.

To do this use the Edit meta information dialog to add the zip file as a format for the book and then, in the top left corner of the conversion dialog, select ZIP as the input format.

This document will deal mainly with the various transforms that operate on the intermediate XHTML and how to control them.

Font size rescaling One of the nicest features of the e-reading experience is the ability to easily adjust font sizes to suit individual needs and lighting conditions.

The base font size of a document is the most common font size in that document, i. When you specify a Base font size, calibre automatically rescales all font sizes in the document proportionately, so that the most common font size becomes the specified base font size and other font sizes are rescaled appropriately.

By choosing a larger base font size, you can make the fonts in the document larger and vice versa. When you set the base font size, for best results, you should also set the font size key.

Normally, calibre will automatically choose a base font size appropriate to the Output Profile you have chosen see Seiteneinrichtung Seite However, you can override this here in case the default is not suitable for you.

The Font size key option lets you control how non-base font sizes are rescaled. The font rescaling algorithm works using a font size key, which is simply a comma-separated list of font sizes.

The idea is that there should be a limited number of font sizes in a document. Suppose the source document we are converting was produced by someone with excellent eyesight and has a base font size of 8pt.

That means the bulk of the text in the document is sized at 8pts, while headings are somewhat larger say 10 and 12pt and footnotes somewhat smaller at 6pt.

Now if we use the following settings: Base font size : 12pt Font size key : 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 The output document will have a base font size of 12pt, headings of 14 and 16pt and footnotes of 8pt.

Now suppose we want to make the largest heading size stand out more and make the footnotes a little larger as well.

To achieve this, the font key should be changed to: New font size key : 7, 9, 12, 14, 18, 20, 22 The largest headings will now become 18pt, while the footnotes will become 9pt.

You can play with these settings to try and figure out what would be optimum for you by using the font rescaling wizard, which can be accessed by clicking the little button next to the Font size key setting.

All the font size rescaling in the conversion can also be disabled here, if you would like to preserve the font sizes in the input document.

A related setting is Line height. Line height controls the vertical height of lines. By default, a line height of 0 , no manipulation of line heights is performed.

However, this is something of a blunt weapon and should be used sparingly. Paragraph spacing Normally, paragraphs in XHTML are rendered with a blank line between them and no leading text indent.

Remove spacing between paragraphs forcefully ensure that all paragraphs have no inter paragraph spacing.

It also sets the text indent to 1. Insert blank line does the opposite, guaranteeing that there is exactly one blank line between each pair of paragraphs.

This is so that you can just set the option and be sure that it performs as advertised, irrespective of how messy the input file is.

The one exception is when the input file uses hard line breaks to implement inter-paragraph spacing.

For example, if you want all paragraphs of class endnote to be right aligned, just add:. Ebook Conversion 57 calibre User Manual, Release 2.

You can use the debug pipeline option described above to see what CSS is present in your input document. Verschiedenes There are a few more options in this section.

No text justification Normally, if the output format supports it, calibre will force the output ebook to have justified text i.

This option will turn off this behavior, in which case whatever justification is specified in the input document will be used instead.

Linearize tables Some badly designed documents use tables to control the layout of text on the page. When converted these documents often have text that runs off the page and other artifacts.

This option will extract the content from the tables and present it in a linear fashion. Note that this option linearizes all tables, so only use it if you are sure the input document does not use tables for legitimate purposes, like presenting tabular information.

Also, note that in cases where there are multiple representations of a character characters shared by Chinese and Japanese for instance the representation used by the largest number of people will be used Chinese in the previous example.

This option is mainly useful if you are going to view the ebook on a device that does not have support for unicode.

When converted, this can result in non-English characters or special characters like smart quotes being corrupted. You can force it to assume a particular character encoding by using this setting.

Seite 93 for more on encoding issues. There are options to setup page margins, which will be used by the Output Plugin, if the selected Output Format supports page margins.

In addition, you should choose an Input profile and an Output profile. If you know the files you are producing are meant for a particular device type, choose the corresponding Output profile.

However, it has some side effects, like inserting artificial section breaks to keep internal components below the size threshold, needed for SONY devices.

The Output profile also controls the screen size. This will cause, for example, images to be auto-resized to be fit to the screen in some output formats.

So choose a profile of a device that has a screen size similar to your device. Use these functions if your input document suffers from poor formatting.

Because these functions rely on common patterns, be aware that in some cases an option may lead to worse results, so use with care.

As an example, several of these options will remove all non-breaking-space entities, or may include false positive matches relating to the function.

This must be enabled in order for various sub-functions to be applied Unwrap lines Enabling this option will cause calibre to attempt to detect and correct hard line breaks that exist within a document using punctuation clues and line length.

Line-unwrap factor This option controls the algorithm calibre uses to remove hard line breaks. For example, if the value of this option is 0.

If your document only has a few line breaks which need correction, then this value should be reduced to somewhere between 0. Detect and markup unformatted chapter headings and sub headings If your document does not have chapter headings and titles formatted differently from the rest of the text, calibre can use this option to attempt detection them and surround them with heading tags.

The inserted headings are not formatted, to apply formatting use the Extra CSS option under the Look and Feel conversion settings. This option will re-number the heading tags to prevent splitting.

Delete blank lines between paragraphs This option will cause calibre to analyze blank lines included within the document. If every paragraph is interleaved with a blank line, then calibre will remove all those blank paragraphs.

Sequences of multiple blank lines will be considered scene breaks and retained as a single paragraph.

Ensure scene breaks are consistently formatted With this option calibre will attempt to detect common scene-break markers and ensure that they are center aligned.

Replace scene breaks If this option is configured then calibre will replace scene break markers it finds with the replacement text specified by the user.

Please note that some ornamental characters may not be supported across all reading devices. In general you should avoid using html tags, calibre will discard any tags and use pre-defined markup.

Ebook Conversion 59 calibre User Manual, Release 2. The document itself is used as a dictionary for analysis. This allows calibre to accurately remove hyphens for any words in the document in any language, along with made-up and obscure scientific words.

The primary drawback is words appearing only a single time in the document will not be changed. Analysis happens in two passes, the first pass analyzes line endings.

Lines are only unwrapped if the word exists with or without a hyphen in the document. The second pass analyzes all hyphenated words throughout the document, hyphens are removed if the word exists elsewhere in the document without a match.

Italicize common words and patterns When enabled, calibre will look for common words and patterns that denote italics and italicize them.

Replace entity indents with CSS indents Some documents use a convention of defining text indents using nonbreaking space entities. As an example, some conversions can leaves behind page headers and footers in the text.

These options use regular expressions to try and detect headers, footers, or other arbitrary text and remove or replace them. There is a wizard to help you customize the regular expressions for your document.

Successful matches will be highlighted in Yellow. The search works by using a python regular expression. All matched text is simply removed from the document or replaced using the replacement pattern.

The replacement pattern is optional, if left blank then text matching the search pattern will be deleted from the document.

You can learn more about regular expressions and their syntax at All about using regular expressions in calibre Seite For example, chapters, page breaks, headers, footers, etc.

As you can imagine, this process varies widely from book to book. Fortunately, calibre has very powerful options to control this.

With power comes complexity, but if once you take the time to learn the complexity, you will find it well worth the effort.

This can sometimes be slightly confusing, as by default, calibre will insert page breaks before detected chapters as well as the locations detected by the page breaks option.

The reason for this is that there are often location where page breaks should be inserted that are not chapter boundaries.

Also, detected chapters can be optionally inserted into the auto generated Table of Contents. XPath can seem a little daunting to use at first, fortunately, there is a XPath tutorial Seite in the User Manual.

Use the debug option 60 Kapitel 1. There is also a button for a XPath wizard to help with the generation of simple XPath expressions.

A related option is Chapter mark, which allows you to control what calibre does when it detects a chapter. By default, it will insert a page break before the chapter.

You can have it insert a ruled line instead of, or in addition to the page break. You can also have it do nothing.

Bemerkung: The default expressions may change depending on the input format you are converting. Insert metadata as page at start of book One of the great things about calibre is that it allows you to maintain very complete metadata about all of your books, for example, a rating, tags, comments, etc.

This option will create a single page with all this metadata and insert it into the converted ebook, typically just after the cover.

Think of it as a way to create your own customised book jacket. Erstes Bild entfernen Sometimes, the source document you are converting includes the cover as part of the book, instead of as a separate cover.

If you also specify a cover in calibre, then the converted book will have two covers. This option will simply remove the first image from the source document, thereby ensuring that the converted book has only one cover, the one specified in calibre.

However, a number of older formats either do not support a metadata based Table of Contents, or individual documents do not have one.

In these cases, the options in this section can help you automatically generate a Table of Contents in the converted ebook, based on the actual content in the input document.

Bemerkung: Using these options can be a little challenging to get exactly right. This will launch the ToC Editor tool after the conversion.

It allows you to create entries in the Table of Contents by simply clicking the place in the book where you want the entry to point.

You can also use the ToC Editor by itself, without doing a conversion. Then just select the book you want to edit and click the ToC Editor button.

The first option is Force use of auto-generated Table of Contents. By checking this option you can have calibre override any Table of Contents found in the metadata of the input document with the auto generated one.

Ebook Conversion 61 calibre User Manual, Release 2. You can learn how to customize the detection of chapters in the Strukturerkennung Seite 60 section above.

If you do not want to include detected chapters in the generated table of contents, check the Do not add detected chapters option.

If less than the Chapter threshold number of chapters were detected, calibre will then add any hyperlinks it finds in the input document to the Table of Contents.

This often works well many input documents include a hyperlinked Table of Contents right at the start. The Number of links option can be used to control this behavior.

If set to zero, no links are added. If set to a number greater than zero, at most that number of links is added. However, if there are some additional undesirable entries, you can filter them using the TOC Filter option.

This is a regular expression that will match the title of entries in the generated table of contents. Whenever a match is found, it will be removed.

Next to each option is a button that launches a wizard to help with the creation of basic XPath expressions.

The following simple example illustrates how to use these options. If that works, then try your format of choice. These settings are the defaults for the conversion options.

Whenever you try to convert a new book, the settings set here will be used by default. You can also change settings in the conversion dialog for each book conversion.

When you convert a book, calibre remembers the settings you used for that book, so that if you convert it again, the saved settings for the individual book will take precedence over the defaults set in Preferences.

You can restore the individual settings to defaults by using the Restore to defaults button in the individual book conversion dialog.

You can remove the saved settings for a group of books by selecting all the books and then clicking the edit metadata button to bring up the bulk metadata edit dialog, near the bottom of the dialog is an option to remove stored conversion settings.

This can be turned off by the option in the top left corner of the Bulk Conversion dialog. Ebook Conversion 63 calibre User Manual, Release 2.

Since the highest priority in Bulk Conversion is given to the settings in the Bulk Conversion dialog, these will override any book specific settings.

So you should only bulk convert books together that need similar settings. The exceptions are metadata and input format specific settings.

Since the Bulk Conversion dialog does not have settings for these two categories, they will be taken from book specific settings if any or the defaults.

Bemerkung: You can see the actual settings used during any conversion by clicking the rotating icon in the lower right corner and then double clicking the individual conversion job.

This will bring up a conversion log that will contain the actual settings used, near the top. Microsoft Word-Dokumente konvertieren calibre can automatically convert.

Just add the file to calibre and click convert make sure you are running the latest version of calibre as support for.

Bemerkung: There is a demo. Open the output ebook in the calibre viewer and click the Table of Contents button to view the generated Table of Contents.

If you have a newer version of Word available, you can directly save it as docx as well. Another alternative is to use the free OpenOffice.

Open your. TXT-Dokumente konvertieren TXT documents have no well defined way to specify formatting like bold, italics, etc, or document structure like paragraphs, headings, sections and so on, but there are a variety of conventions commonly used.

By default calibre attempts automatic detection of the correct formatting and markup based on those conventions.

TXT input supports a number of options to differentiate how paragraphs are detected. Paragraph Style: Auto Analyzes the text file and attempts to automatically determine how paragraphs are defined.

This option will generally work fine, if you achieve undesirable results try one of the manual options. This is the second paragraph.

Paragraph Style: Single Assumes that every line is a paragraph: This is the first. This is the second. This is the third.

Paragraphs end when the next line that starts with an indent is reached: This is the first. Paragraph Style: Unformatted Assumes that the document has no formatting, but does use hard line breaks.

Punctuation and median line length are used to attempt to re-create paragraphs. Formatierungsstil: Automatisch Attemtps to detect the type of formatting markup being used.

If no markup is used then heuristic formatting will be applied. Unless you already have one, it is highly recommended that you leave the Gateway enabled as a DHCP server.

This value must be The number will vary depending on the starting IP address entered. The Client Lease Time is the amount of time a computer will be allowed connection to the Gateway with its current dynamic IP address.

The Gateway will use these for quicker access to functioning DNS servers. Otherwise, leave this field blank.

If desired, check the Automatically adjust clock for daylight saving changes checkbox. When finished making your changes on this tab, click the Save Settings button to save these changes, or click the Cancel Changes button to undo your changes.

It is useful when you are hosting your own website, FTP server, or other server behind the Gateway.

Figure DynDNS. Because it is dynamic, it will change. The status of the DDNS service connection is displayed here.

Because it is dynamic, this will change. NAT is a security feature that is enabled by default. It enables the Gateway to translate IP addresses of your local area network to a different IP address for the Internet.

To disable NAT, click the Disabled radio button. If you have multiple routers, you may want to use the Routing Information Protocol RIP so the routers can exchange routing information with each other.

To use RIP, select the Enabled radio button. Otherwise, keep the default, Disabled. To use RIP version 1 for routing, select the Enabled radio button.

This setting is available when you have configured a static route and you need to choose an interface for that route. The RIP protocol regularly broadcasts routing information to other Gateways on the network.

RIP can be sent using either methods. If you want to use multicasting, select Multicast. If you want to use Broadcast, select Broadcast.

If the Gateway is connected to more than one network, it may be necessary to set up a static route between them. A static route is a pre-determined pathway that network information must travel to reach a specific host or network.

Select the number of the static route from the drop-down menu. The Gateway supports up to 20 static route entries.

If you need to delete a route, then select the entry and click the Delete This Entry button. The Destination IP Address is the address of the remote network or host to which you want to assign a static route.

Enter the IP address of the host for which you wish to create a static route. If you are building a route to an entire network, be sure that the network portion of the IP address is set to 0.

Enter the Subnet Mask also known as the Network Mask , which determines which portion of an IP address is the network portion, and which portion is the host portion.

Enter the IP address of the gateway device that allows for contact between the Gateway and the remote network or host.

Hop Count is the number of hops to each node until the destination is reached 16 hops maximum. Enter the Hop Count in the field provided.

Click the Show Routing Table button to open a screen displaying how data is routed through your local network. Click the Refresh button to update the information.

Click the Close button to return to the previous screen. Figure Routing Table When finished making your changes on this tab, click the Save Settings button to save these changes, or click the Cancel Changes button to undo your changes.

If you have If you have only If you want to disable wireless networking, select Disabled. Enter the name for your wireless network into the field.

The SSID is the network name shared among all devices in a wireless network. It must be identical for all devices in the wireless network.

It is case-sensitive and must not exceed 32 alphanumeric characters, which may be any keyboard character. Linksys recommends that you change the default SSID linksys to a unique name of your choice.

Select the appropriate channel from the list provided to correspond with your network settings. All devices in your wireless network must use the same channel in order to function correctly.

Wireless computers or clients will automatically detect the wireless channel of the Gateway. When wireless computers or clients survey the local area for wireless networks to associate with, they will detect the SSID broadcast by the Gateway.

These are briefly discussed here. Then enter a Group Key Renewal period, which instructs the Gateway how often it should change the encryption keys.

An acronym for Wired Equivalent Privacy, WEP is an encryption method used to protect your wireless data communications.

WEP uses bit or bit keys to provide access control to your network and encryption security for every data transmission.

To decode data transmissions, all devices in a network must use an identical WEP key. Higher encryption levels offer higher levels of security, but due to the complexity of the encryption, they may decrease network performance.

To enable WEP, select 64 bits 10 hex digits or bits 26 hex digits. Make sure that the receiving device wireless computer or client is using the same key.

Instead of manually entering WEP keys, you can enter a passphrase. This passphrase is used to generate one or more WEP keys. It is case-sensitive and should not be longer than 32 alphanumeric characters.

If you want to communicate with non-Linksys wireless products or Windows XP Zero Configuration, make a note of the WEP key generated in the Key 1 field, and enter it manually in the wireless computer or client.

WEP keys enable you to create an encryption scheme for wireless network transmissions. If you are not using a Passphrase, then manually enter a set of values.

Do not leave a key field blank, and do not enter all zeroes; they are not valid key values. If you are using bit WEP encryption, the key must be exactly 10 hexadecimal characters in length.

If you are using bit WEP encryption, the key must be exactly 26 hexadecimal characters in length. Select Allow All you want all computers to have access to the wireless network.

To restrict access to the network, select Restrict Access, and then select Prevent to block access for the designated computers or Permit only to permit access for the designated computers.

Enter the MAC addresses of the computers you want to designate. Click the Refresh button to get the most up-to-date information. To only allow Open System authentication, select Open System.

For Shared Key authentication, the sender and recipient use a WEP key for both authentication and data encryption.

To only allow Shared Key authentication, select Shared Key. It is recommended that this option be left in the default Auto mode, because some clients cannot be configured for Shared Key.

The rate should be set depending on the speed of your wireless network. Select from a range of transmission speeds, or keep the default setting, Auto, to have the Gateway automatically use the fastest possible data rate and enable the Auto-Fallback feature.

Auto-Fallback will negotiate the best possible connection speed between the Gateway and a wireless client. The Beacon Interval value indicates the frequency interval of the beacon.

A beacon is a packet broadcast by the Gateway to synchronize the wireless network. The default value is 1. A DTIM field is a countdown field informing clients of the next window for listening to broadcast and multicast messages.

Its clients hear the beacons and awaken to receive the broadcast and multicast messages. This value should remain at its default setting of It specifies the maximum size for a packet before data is fragmented into multiple packets.

If you experience a high packet error rate, you may slightly increase the Fragmentation Threshold.

Setting the Fragmentation Threshold too low may result in poor network performance. Only minor modifications of this value are recommended.

If you encounter inconsistent data flow, only minor modifications are recommended. The Gateway sends Request to Send RTS frames to a particular receiving station and negotiates the sending of a data frame.

Use these features to enhance the security of your network. Configure these settings so the Gateway will permit VPN tunnels to pass through.

Some ISPs may request that you use this feature on the Gateway. Firewall You can enable or disable the firewall, select filters to block specific Internet data types, and block anonymous Internet requests.

To use the firewall, click Enable. If you do not want to use the firewall, click Disable. Use of WAN proxy servers may compromise the Gateway's security.

To enable proxy filtering, click the checkbox. A cookie is data stored on your computer and used by Internet sites when you interact with them.

To enable cookie filtering, click the checkbox. Java is a programming language for websites. If you deny Java Applets, you run the risk of not having access to Internet sites created using this programming language.

To enable Java Applet filtering, click the checkbox. ActiveX is a programming language for websites. If you deny ActiveX, you run the risk of not having access to Internet sites created using this programming language.

To enable ActiveX filtering, click the checkbox. Select Block Anonymous Internet Requests to block anonymous Internet requests or deselect it to allow anonymous Internet requests.

If you want to see activity logs for your security measures, then click the View Logs button. Click the Clear button to clear the log information.

Click the pageRefresh button to refresh the information. Click the Previous Page button to go to the previous page of information.

Click the Next Page button to move to the next page of information. You can set up Internet access policies for specific computers and block websites by URL address or keyword.

Internet Access Policy. Access can be managed by a policy. Use the settings on this screen to establish an access policy after the Save Settings button is clicked.

To view all the policies, click the Summary button. Policies can be deleted from the Summary screen by selecting the policy or policies and clicking the Delete button.

To return to the Internet Access screen, click the Close button. Policies are disabled by default. To enable a policy, select the policy number from the drop-down menu, and click the radio button beside Enable.

To create an Internet Access policy: 1. Select a number from the Internet Access Policy drop-down menu. To enable this policy, click the radio button beside Enable.

Enter a Policy Name in the field provided. The List of PCs screen will appear. After making your changes, click the Save Settings button to apply your changes or Cancel Changes to cancel your changes.

Click the appropriate option, Deny or Allow, depending on whether you want to block or allow Internet access for the PCs you listed on the List of PCs screen.

Decide which days and what times you want this policy to be enforced. Select the individual days during which the policy will be in effect, or select Everyday.

Then enter a range of hours and minutes during which the policy will be in effect, or select 24 Hours. If you want to block websites using specific keywords, enter each keyword in a separate field next to Website Blocking by Keyword.

Figure List of PCs 9. You can filter access to various services accessed over the Internet, such as FTP or telnet, by selecting services from the drop-down menus next to Blocked Services.

Then enter the range of ports you want to filter. Then the Port Services screen will appear. Select its protocol from the Protocol drop-down menu, and enter its range in the Port Range fields.

Then click the Add button. To modify a service, select it from the list on the right. Change its name, protocol setting, or port range.

Then click the Modify button. To delete a service, select it from the list on the right. Then click the Delete button. When you are finished making changes on the Port Services screen, click the Apply button to save changes.

If you want to cancel your changes, click the Cancel button. To close the Port Services screen and return to the Access Restrictions screen, click the Close button.

When users send this type of request to your network via the Internet, the Gateway will forward those requests to the appropriate computer.

In this section you will customize the port service for your applications. Enter the name of the application in the field provided.

Enter the External and Internal Port numbers. Enter the IP Address of the appropriate computer. Click Enabled to enable forwarding for the chosen application.

Specialized Internet applications are any applications that use Internet access to perform functions such as videoconferencing or online gaming.

Some Internet applications may not require any forwarding. Enter the starting and ending numbers of the port range you wish to forward.

Click the Enable checkbox to enable forwarding for the chosen application. For this feature, the Gateway will watch outgoing data for specific port numbers.

The Gateway will remember the IP address of the computer that sends a transmission requesting data, so that when the requested data returns through the Gateway, the data is pulled back to the proper computer by way of IP address and port mapping rules.

Enter the name you wish to give each application. Enter the starting and ending port numbers of the Triggered Range. Enter the starting and ending port numbers of the Forwarded Range.

Click the Enable checkbox to enable port triggering for the chosen application. DMZ hosting forwards all the ports for one computer at the same time, which differs from Port Range Forwarding, which can only forward a maximum of 10 ranges of ports.

This feature allows one local user to be exposed to the Internet for use of a special-purpose service such as Internet gaming and videoconferencing.

To use this feature, select Enable. To disable DMZ, select Disable. To use QoS, select Enable. Otherwise, keep the default, Disable.

Depending on the settings of the QoS screen, this feature will assign information a high or low priority for the five preset applications and three additional applications that you specify.

For example, after developing the HTML pages for a website on a local machine, they are typically uploaded to the web server using FTP.

The communications protocol used to connect to servers on the World Wide Web. Its primary function is to establish a connection with a web server and transmit HTML pages to the client web browser.

It allows a user at a terminal or computer to log onto a remote device and run a program. The standard e-mail protocol on the Internet.

A standard mail server commonly used on the Internet. It provides a message store that holds incoming e-mail until users log on and download it.

POP3 is a simple system with little selectivity. All pending messages and attachments are downloaded at the same time.

Specific Port. You can add three more applications by entering their respective port numbers in these fields. When you have finished making changes to this screen, click the Save Settings button to save the changes, or click the Cancel Changes button to undo your changes.

Gateway Access Local Gateway Access. The default username and password is admin. Select the number of the user from the drop-down menu.

Enter the default username, admin. It is recommended that you change the default username to one of your choice. It is recommended that you change the default password, admin, to one of your choice.

Remote Gateway Access. This feature allows you to access the Gateway from a remote location, via the Internet.

This feature allows you to manage the Gateway from a remote location via the Internet. To enable Remote Management, click Enable. Enter the port number you will use to remotely access the Gateway.

Specify the IP address es allowed to remotely manage the Gateway. To allow all IP addresses with no restrictions, select All.

Figure Management Remote Upgrade. To enable Remote Upgrade, click Enable. Enter the name of the Gateway.

Enter the IP address of the remote host computer that will receive the trap messages. To enable UPnP, click Enable. Otherwise, click Disable.

Otherwise, select Disable. It also provides logs for VPN and firewall events. To enable log reporting, click Enabled. Enter the IP Address of the computer that will receive logs.

You will need Logviewer software to view these logs. This free software is available for download from www.

To enable E-Mail Alerts, click Enabled. Enter the number of Denial of Service attacks that will trigger an e-mail alert. Enter the e-mail address that will receive alert logs.

Enter the return address for the e-mail alerts. To view the logs, click the View Logs button. A new screen will appear. From the drop-down menu, you can select which log you want to view.

Enter the IP address that you want to ping. Enter the size of the packet. Enter the number of times that you want to ping.

Enter the ping interval how often the target IP address will be pinged in milliseconds. Enter the ping timeout how long before the ping test times out in milliseconds.

Click the Start Test button to start the Ping Test. The results of the ping test will be shown here. Then follow the on-screen instructions.

Then follow the on-screen instructions to locate the file. After you have selected the file, click the Restore button.

If you wish to restore the Gateway to its factory default settings and lose all your settings, click Yes. To begin the restore process, click the Save Settings button to save these changes, or click the Cancel Changes button to undo your changes.

Extract the file on your computer. Click the Browse button to find the firmware upgrade file. Double-click the firmware file that you have downloaded and extracted.

Click the Upgrade button, and follow the on-screen instructions. To cancel the firmware upgrade, click the Cancel Upgrades button.

In most cases you should use the hard reboot. The soft reboot is similar to restarting your computer without physically powering down the computer.

Reboot Reboot Mode. To reboot your Gateway, select Hard or Soft. Choose Hard to power cycle the Gateway or Soft.

Figure Reboot To begin the reboot process, click the Save Settings button. When a screen appears asking you if you really want to reboot the Gateway, click OK.

Click the Cancel Changes button if you want to cancel the reboot. DHCP Renew. Click the Refresh button if you want to refresh the displayed information.

This data is stored in temporary memory and changes periodically. Click the Close button to return to the Local Network screen.

Figure Local Network Click the Refresh button if you want to refresh the displayed information.

Click the Wireless Clients Connected button to view a list of the wireless clients connected to the Gateway, along with their computer names, IP addresses, and MAC addresses.

Click the Close button to return to the Wireless screen. Read the descriptions below to help you solve your problems.

Common Problems and Solutions 1. I need to set a static IP address on a computer. Click Start, Settings, and Control Panel.

Double-click Network. Highlight it and click the Properties button. Enter a unique IP address that is not used by any other computer on the network connected to the Gateway.

Make sure that each IP address is unique for each computer or network device. Click the Gateway tab, and in the New Gateway prompt, enter Click the Add button to accept the entry.

Enter the Host and Domain names e. Restart the computer when asked. Double-click Network and Dial-Up Connections.

Right-click the Local Area Connection that is associated with the Ethernet adapter you are using, and select the Properties option. Select Use the following IP address option.

Enter the Subnet Mask, Enter the Default Gateway, Contact your ISP or go on its website to find the information.

Restart the computer if asked. If you are using the Classic interface where the icons and menus look like previous Windows versions , please follow the instructions for Windows Click Start and Control Panel.

Click the Properties button. I want to test my Internet connection. Make sure Obtain IP address automatically is selected in the settings.

For Windows NT 4. Double-click the Network icon. Open a command prompt. In the Open field, type in command. Press the Enter key or click the OK button.

In the Open field, type cmd. In the command prompt, type ping In the command prompt, type ping www. If you cannot open a webpage, try the ping command from a different computer to verify that your original computer is not the cause of the problem.

Try the ping command from a different computer to verify that your original computer is not the cause of the problem. I am not getting an IP address on the Internet with my Internet connection.

Make sure you are using the right Internet connection settings. Make sure you have the right cable. Turn off the computer and Gateway.

Wait 30 seconds, and then turn on the Gateway, and computer. AH has limitations due to occasional incompatibility with the NAT standard.

Y Y being any number from 1 to Note that each IP address must be unique within the network.

I need to set up a server behind my Gateway and make it available to the public. To use a server like a web, ftp, or mail server, you need to know the respective port numbers they are using.

You can get more information by viewing the documentation provided with the server you installed. We will be setting up web, ftp, and mail servers.

Enter any name you want to use for the Customized Application. Enter the External Port range of the service you are using.

For example, if you have a web server, you would enter the range 80 to Enter the IP address of the computer or network device that you want the port server to go to.

Check the Enable option for the port services you want to use. I need to set up online game hosting or use other Internet applications.

If you want to play online games or use Internet applications, most will work without doing any port forwarding or DMZ hosting.

There may be cases when you want to host an online game or Internet application. This would require you to set up the Gateway to deliver incoming packets or data to a specific computer.

This also applies to the Internet applications you are using. The best way to get the information on what port services to use is to go to the website of the online game or application you want to use.

Follow these steps to set up online game hosting or use a certain Internet application: 1. For example, if you want to host Unreal Tournament UT , you would enter the range to If you are having difficulties getting any Internet game, server, or application to function properly, consider exposing one computer to the Internet using DeMilitarized Zone DMZ hosting.

This option is available when an application requires too many ports or when you are not sure which port services to use. Make sure you disable all the forwarding entries if you want to successfully use DMZ hosting, since forwarding has priority over DMZ hosting.

In other words, data that enters the Gateway will be checked first by the forwarding settings. If the port number that the data enters from does not have port forwarding, then the Gateway will send the data to whichever computer or network device you set for DMZ hosting.

Click Enabled and enter the IP of the computer. Check the Port Forwarding pages and disable or remove the entries you have entered for forwarding.

Keep this information in case you want to use it at a later time. I forgot my password, or the password prompt always appears when I am saving settings to the Gateway.

If you are still getting prompted for a password when saving settings, then perform the following steps: 1. Enter a different password in the Gateway Password field, and enter the same password in the second field to confirm the password.

Click the Save Settings button. If you have proxy settings, you need to disable these on your computer. Because the Gateway is the gateway for the Internet connection, the computer does not need any proxy settings to gain access.

Please follow these directions to verify that you do not have any proxy settings and that the browser you use is set to connect directly to the LAN.

Double-click Internet Options. Click the Connections tab. Click the LAN settings button and remove anything that is checked.

Click the OK button to go back to the previous screen. Click the option Never dial a connection.

This will remove any dial-up pop-ups for PPPoE users. Make sure you have Direct connection to the Internet selected on this screen.

Close all the windows to finish. To start over, I need to set the Gateway to factory default. Hold the Reset button for 10 seconds and then release it.

This will return the Internet settings, password, forwarding, and other settings on the Gateway to the factory default settings. Ergebnisse einer Gemeinschaftsbefragung junger und mittlerer Erwachsener.

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Just before the onset of menstruation, the breasts are often swollen and tender because the ductal system VI.

If pregnancy does not occur, the estrogen level falls and the breasts return to normal. During pregnancy there is a remarkable growth of ducts and lobules in the breast along with a thickening of the nipples.

After a baby is born, the hormone prolactin stimulates milk production in the breast. Initially, the breast produces a thick yellow liquid called colostrum, which is particularly rich in the disease-fighting substances called antibodies.

Within three to five days, the breast produces milk as the suckling infant stimulates the release of another hormone called oxytocin.

This hormone causes contractions in the network of cells that surround the ducts and lobules, so that milk readily flows from the breast and into the mouth of the hungry infant see Breast-feeding.

As a woman passes the childbearing age and enters menopause, the ovaries stop producing estrogen. The decreased stimulation from this hormone causes the milk-producing ducts and lobules in the breast to be replaced with extra fatty tissue.

Am kopfnahen kranialen oberen Ende des Manubriums ist eine Einkerbung, die Incisura jugularis von lat. Das Brustbein des Mannes ist schlanker als das der Frau.

DEF 1a The sternum is an elongated, flattened bone, forming the middle portion of the anterior wall of the thorax. It connects to the rib bones via cartilage, forming the rib cage with them, and thus helps to protect the lungs, heart and major blood vessels from physical trauma.

Its upper end supports the clavicles collarbones , and its margins articulate with the cartilages of the first seven pairs of ribs.

Its average length in the adult is about 17 cm, and is rather longer in the male than in the female.

The sternum is composed of highly vascular cancellous tissue, covered by a thin layer of compact bone which is thickest in the manubrium between the articular facets for the clavicles.

These sections of the sternum arise as separate bones, and they may fuse partially or completely with one another. DEF Milk-producing gland characteristic of all female mammals and present in a rudimentary and generally nonfunctional form in males.

Mammary glands are regulated by the endocrine system and become functional in response to the hormonal changes associated with parturition.

The mammary gland of a woman who has not borne children consists of a conical disk of glandular tissue, which is encased in variable quantities of fat that give it its characteristic shape.

The glandular tissue itself is made up VI. Each lobe is drained by a separate excretory duct. These converge beneath the nipple, where they widen into milk reservoirs, before narrowing again to emerge as pinpoint openings at the summit of the nipple.

Circular and radiating muscles in the areola, a circular disk of roughened pigmented skin surrounding the nipple, cause the nipple to become firm and erect upon tactile stimulation; this facilitates suckling.

The areola also contains sebaceous glands to provide lubrication for the nipple during nursing. Mammary glands are derived from a modification of sweat glands.

They first appear in embryonic life as clumps of cells proliferating from a longitudinal ridge of ectoderm the outermost of the three germ layers of the embryo along the so-called milk line, from the buds, or beginnings, of the lowerlimbs to those of the upper limbs.

The number of these clumps that ultimately become breasts, or mammae, varies with each mammalian species according to the size of its litter.

In the human normally only one develops on each side of the chest. A lesser development of one or more breasts polymastia or nipples polythelia may, however, occur anywhere along the milk line.

In monotremes, they resemble sweat glands in structure, leading to speculation that they are sweat or sebaceous glands modified through evolution.

In higher orders, the glands at maturity are developed only in females; in monotremes they evolve equally in both sexes. The organ in human males occasionally develops functional ability, giving support to the belief that lactation occurred in both sexes in prehistoric mammals.

The development of mammary glands is regulated by hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary and the ovaries; lactation is under the control of the other pituitary hormones.

Below, it is bounded by the diaphragm. The bony framework is encased with muscles, fat, and cutaneous tissues. Zu Beginn treten schmerzlose, meist derbe, schlecht verschiebbare, langsam wachsende Knoten auf.

Neben dem Tastbefund dienen v. Gesichert wird die Diagnose durch mikroskopische Gewebeuntersuchung. Dies weist auf genetische Faktoren bei der Entstehung hin.

Die Behandlung erfolgt meist operativ. Nach brusterhaltender Operation ist eine Nachbestrahlung erforderlich. Nach der Operation gibt es u.

Behandelt wird die gutartige Erkrankung mit hormonhaltigen Medikamenten. DEF Disease characterized by the growth of malignant cells in the mammary glands.

Breast cancer can strike males and females, although women are about times more likely to develop the disease than men. Most cancers in female breasts form shortly before, during, or after menopause, with three-quarters of all cases being diagnosed after age Generally, the older a woman is, the greater is her likelihood of developing breast cancer.

Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and in North America and Western Europe, where life spans are longer, the incidence is highest.

For instance, it is estimated that over 10 percent of all women in the United States will develop the disease at some point in their lives.

The exact causes of breast cancer are largely unknown, but both environmental and genetic factors are involved. A family history of breast cancer increases risk.

Prolonged exposure to the hormone estrogen, as when menstruation starts before age 12 and continues beyond age 50, favours development of cancer, and women who have had certain kinds of benign tumours are also more prone to developing breast cancer.

Other risk factors may include lack of exercise, use of oral contraceptives, alcohol consumption, and previous medical treatments involving chest irradiation.

The most common symptom of breast cancer is an abnormal lump or swelling in the breast, but lumps may also appear beside the breast or under the arm.

Other symptoms may include unexplained breast pain, abnormal nipple discharge, changes in breast texture, or changes in the skin on or around the breast.

Early diagnosis greatly improves the odds of survival. When detected early, breast cancer has a very high five-year survival rate, and patients who reach this stage often go on to live long, healthy lives.

Survival rates are lower for cancers that have spread locally, and they are very low for cancers that have metastasized, or spread, to distant parts of the body.

Breast cancer may be first discovered by the patient as the result of a regular breast self-examination.

A breast X ray mammogram is often used for initial diagnosis, but in order to confirm the presence of cancer, a tissue sample biopsy usually must be taken.

If cancer is suspected to have spread to nearby lymph nodes, they must also be sampled. Several imaging methods may be used to determine the degree of metastasis, including X rays, computed tomography CT scans, or magnetic resonance imaging MRI.

The presence of receptors for the hormones estrogen and progesterone is also determined because these receptors play an important role in the VI.

Almost all cases of breast cancer begin in the glandular tissues that either produce milk lobular tissue or provide a passage for milk ductal tissue to the nipple.

Cancers of these tissues are called lobular carcinomas and ductal carcinomas. Because these tissues are glandular, both cancers are called adenocarcinomas.

The most common type of tumour, called infiltrating ductal carcinoma, is a single hard, barely movable lump.

This type of tumour accounts for about 70 percent of all cases. Fewer than 15 percent of all cases are lobular carcinomas.

There are several other types and subtypes of tumour classified and named according to several criteria, including their outward appearance, cellular composition, cellular origin, and activity.

Paget disease is an uncommon type of breast cancer that begins at the nipple and initially causes a burning, itching, or tender sensation.

Eventually the lesion becomes enlarged, cracks, oozes, and forms crusts. Inflammatory carcinoma is a rare type of breast cancer that results in swelling and reddening of the affected area.

The area then becomes purplish, and the skin is hot, with the nipple usually becoming crusted and retracted. Any lump found in the breast should be examined by a physician for the possibility of cancer.

If it is found to be malignant, treatment may entail surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy. Biological treatment is also an option. Surgery is often the first method of treatment, and a range of procedures are used depending on the type and progression of the cancer.

A lumpectomy removes only the cancerous mass and a small amount of surrounding tissue; a simple mastectomy removes the entire breast; and a modified radical mastectomy removes the breast along with adjacent lymph nodes.

Radical mastectomies involving removal of the breast, underlying muscle, and other tissue are rarely performed.

Side effects of surgery may include changes in arm or shoulder mobility, swelling, infection, and numbness. When lymph nodes are removed, fluid may build up in the region they were taken from.

Partial or complete breast removal is often followed by cosmetic or reconstructive surgery. Side effects of radiation include swelling or thickening of the breast, vomiting, fatigue, diarrhea, or skin irritations resembling sunburn.

Chemotherapy, the use of chemicals to destroy cancerous cells, is commonly employed. Chemotherapeutic agents also attack normal cells to some degree, causing side effects that include hair loss, immune suppression, mouth sores, fatigue, and nausea.

Breast cancer can also be treated through biological therapy, in which chemical inhibitors are used to block the hormones that stimulate growth of cancer cells.

Tamoxifen, for instance, is a common drug that blocks the ability of estrogen to stimulate tumour growth, and Megace blocks the action of progesterone by partially mimicking the hormone.

Herceptin is a manufactured antibody that binds to growth factor receptors on the surface of cancer cells and thereby blocks cell proliferation.

Breast cancer cannot be completely prevented, but the risk of developing advanced disease can be greatly reduced by early detection.

Women at high risk of developing breast cancer may benefit from taking tamoxifen to reduce their risk.

Women who are at extreme risk, as determined by a very strong family history or the presence VI. Die Therapie wird auf die jeweilige Erkrankungssituation der Patientin abgestimmt.

Operative Behandlung Es wird in jedem Fall angestrebt, bei Brustkrebs brusterhaltend zu operieren. Da viel Wert auf Kosmetik gelegt wird, werden Narben z.

Die erste Station, die die Zellen hier passieren, sind die Achsellymphknoten. Je nachdem ob bzw. Nach einer Mastektomie Brustentfernung muss im Normalfall nicht bestrahlt werden.

Hier kann die Bestrahlung auch als erste Therapie eingesetzt werden. Die Bestrahlung selbst ist schmerzfrei und erfolgt ambulant.

Das Operationsgebiet bzw. Diese Therapie wird normalerweise nach einer Operation eingesetzt. Die Medikamente werden entweder gespritzt oder als Infusion verabreicht.

Zellen des Verdauungstraktes, Haarzellen oder Blutzellen durch die Therapie angegriffen. Die Nebenwirkungen verschwinden wieder nach Beendigung der Therapie bzw.

Liegt ein hormonsensibler Tumor vor, kann das Wachstum durch antihormonelle Medikamente gehemmt werden.

Often, a combination of these treatments is used. Surgery for breast cancer consists of two main options: Breast-conserving surgery in which only the tumor and an area of normal tissue surrounding it is removed and mastectomy in which all breast tissue is removed.

Breastconserving surgery includes lumpectomy in which a small amount of surrounding normal tissue is removed , wide excision or partial mastectomy in which a somewhat larger amount of the surrounding normal tissue is removed , and quadrantectomy in which one fourth of the breast is removed.

Surgery: The cancerous tumor and varying amounts of the surrounding tissue are removed. There are two main options for removing the tumor: breast-conserving surgery and removal of the breast mastectomy.

Breast-conserving surgery leaves as much of the breast intact as possible. There are several types: Lumpectomy is removal of the tumor with a small amount of surrounding normal tissue Wide excision or partial mastectomy is removal of the tumor and a somewhat larger amount of surrounding normal tissue Quadrantectomy is removal of one fourth of the breast Removing the tumor with some normal tissue provides the best chance of preventing cancer from recurring within the breast.

Breast-conserving surgery is usually combined with radiation therapy. The major advantage of breast-conserving surgery is cosmetic: This surgery may help preserve body image.

Thus, when the tumor is large in relation to the breast, this type of surgery is less likely to be useful.

In such cases, removing the tumor plus some surrounding normal tissue means removing most of the breast. Breast-conserving surgery is usually more appropriate when tumors are small.

However, in most women, the treated breast shrinks somewhat and may change in contour. Mastectomy is the other main surgical option.

There are several types: Simple mastectomy consists of removing all breast tissue but leaving the muscle under the breast and enough skin to cover the wound.

Reconstruction of the breast is much easier if these tissues are left. A simple mastectomy, rather than breast-conserving surgery, is usually performed when there is a substantial amount of cancer in the milk ducts.

Modified radical mastectomy consists of removing all breast tissue and some lymph nodes in the armpit but leaving the muscle under the breast.

This procedure is usually performed instead of a radical mastectomy. Radical mastectomy consists of removing all breast tissue plus the lymph nodes in the armpit and the muscle under the breast.

This procedure is rarely performed now. Lymph node surgery lymph node dissection is also performed if the cancer is or is suspected to be invasive.

Nearby lymph nodes usually about 10 to 20 are removed and examined to determine whether the cancer has spread to them.

If cancer cells are detected in the lymph nodes, the likelihood that the cancer has spread to other parts of the body is increased.

In such cases, additional treatment is needed. Removal of lymph nodes often causes problems, because it affects the drainage of fluids in tissues.

As a result, fluids may accumulate, causing persistent swelling lymphedema of the arm or hand. Arm and shoulder movement may be limited.

Other problems include temporary or persistent numbness, VI. A sentinel lymph node biopsy is an alternative approach that may minimize or avoid the problems of lymph node surgery.

This procedure involves locating and removing the first lymph node or nodes into which the tumor drains. If this node contains cancer cells, the other lymph nodes are removed.

If it does not, the other lymph nodes are not removed. Whether this procedure is as effective as standard lymph node surgery is being studied.

Breast reconstruction surgery may be performed at the same time as a mastectomy or later. The safety of silicone implants, which sometimes leak, has been questioned.

However, there is almost no evidence suggesting that silicone leakage has serious effects. Ein einzelner Muskel lat. Demnach unterscheidet man glatte Muskulatur und quer gestreifte Muskulatur.

Das einem Muskel zugrunde liegende Gewebe ist das Muskelgewebe, welches aus charakteristischen Muskelzellen besteht.

Beim Skelettmuskel werden die Muskelzellen als Muskelfasern bezeichnet. Wenn der Muskel sich zusammenzieht, gleiten diese Filamentreihen mit Hilfe von Querverbindungen, die wie Sperrklinken wirken, aneinander vorbei.

Die Muskelfasern kann man nach ihrer Funktion in schnelle und langsame Fasern einteilen. Bei manchen Krankheiten, z.

It is classified as skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle, and its function is to produce force and cause motion, either locomotion or movement within internal organs.

Much of muscle contraction occurs without conscious thought and is necessary for survival, like the contraction of the heart, or peristalsis which pushes food through the digestive system.

Voluntary muscle contraction is used to move the body, and can be finely controlled, like movements of the eye, or gross movements like the quadriceps muscle of the thigh.

There are two broad types of voluntary muscle fibers, slow twitch and fast twitch. Slow twitch fibers contract for long periods of time but with little force while fast twitch fibers contract quickly and powerfully but fatigue very rapidly.

Each muscle cell, or fiber, contains several myofibrils, which are composed of regularly arranged myofilaments of two types, thick and thin.

Each thick myofilament contains several hundred molecules of the protein myosin. Thin filaments contain two strands of the protein actin.

The myofibrils are made up of alternating VI. During muscular contractions, these interdigitated rows of filaments slide along each other by means of cross bridges that act as ratchets.

The energy for this motion is generated by densely packed mitochondria that surround the myofibrils.

Smooth muscle is found in organs made up also of other tissues, such as the heart and intestines, which contain layers of connective tissue.

Skeletal muscle is usually found in bundles, composing muscular structures resembling organs in function. These often ripple the skin visibly during muscular action.

The shape of the muscular organ is dependent on its location and function. Muscle fibers have been classified by function into slow twitch type I and fast twitch type II.

Most skeletal muscles are composed of both types of fibers, although one type may predominate. The fast-twitch, darker-hued muscle fibers contract more rapidly and produce bursts of power; the slow-twitch, lighter-hued muscle fibers have greater endurance.

Muscles that are given proper exercise react to stimuli quickly and powerfully, and are said to possess tone. As a result of excessive use, muscles may hypertrophy, that is, increase in size because of an increase in size of the individual muscle cells.

As a result of prolonged disuse, muscles may atrophy, or diminish in size, and become weaker. In certain diseases, such as various forms of paralysis, the muscles may atrophy to such a degree that they are reduced to a fraction of their normal size.

There are two such muscles on each side of the sternum breastbone in the human body: pectoralis major and pectoralis minor.

Der Narbenverlauf entspricht dem der Brustverkleinerung, d. Was kann eine Bruststraffung erreichen?

Sagen Sie bitte, ob Sie derzeit Medikamente einnehmen und ob Vorerkrankungen bestehen. Stellen Sie bitte alle Fragen, die Sie zu dieser Behandlungsform haben.

Die Haut wird dann teilweise entfernt und gestrafft und die Brust so neu geformt. Allgemein kann gesagt werden, ass je ausgedehnter die Hautschnitte sind, desto umfangreicher kann eine Neuformung der Brust erforderlich sein.

Die Haut um den Warzenvorhof wird dann entfernt. Wie lange dauert die Operation? Eine beidseitige Bruststraffung dauert ca.

Wenn nur kleinere Hautschnitte erforderlich sind, kann die Operation evtl. Wie viel Schmerzen werden Sie haben? Die leichten Schmerzen lassen sich jedoch gut mit Schmerzmitteln behandeln und werden von Tag zu Tag besser.

Was haben Sie nach der Operation zu erwarten? Die meisten Patientinnen sind schon unmittelbar nach der Operation sehr zufrieden. Wie lange dauert es, bis Sie sich erholt haben?

Wie sieht das langfristige Ergebnis bei den meisten Patientinnen aus? Blutungen, Infektionen oder Narkosereaktionen.

DEF 1a Breast lift or mastopexy surgery is a technique performed to restore a more youthful shape and position to a breast that has developed ptosis drooping of the breast related to aging, pregnancy, breast feeding, or weight loss.

As the skin loses its elasticity, the breasts often lose their shape and firmness and begin to sag. No surgery can permanently delay the effects of gravity.

Mastopexy can also reduce the size of the areola, the darker skin surrounding the nipple. Incisions required for breast lift are similar to those required for a breast reduction.

GLOSSAR B The major difference between a mastopexy and a reduction are that in a reduction the excess breast tissue is removed while in a lift it is lifted and rearranged to a more youthful position.

If your breasts are small or have lost volume, breast implants inserted in conjunction with mastopexy can increase both their firmness and their size.

Ideal candidates for breast lift or mastopexy surgery are those women who are pleased with the size of their breast when wearing a bra and those patients with good quality skin with few stretch marks.

Breast lift surgery, which may also be performed in conjunction with breast augmentation or breast reduction surgery, gives the affected women firmer and more youthful breasts, and can have a long-term positive effect on both their physical proportions and their self-esteem.

Breast lifts are an option for many women in very different age groups. Frequently the desire for cosmetic surgery comes after a number of pregnancies or major weight loss.

Other reasons include extreme, agerelated drooping of the breasts or congenital breast deformity different shaped breasts; excessively large nipples, etc.

Before Surgery You will first discuss your concerns with one of our specialists during a personal consultation session.

The two of you will decide whether a breast lift is appropriate in your case and what form it might take.

The specialist will also indicate the kind of outcome you can expect and any side effects and risks of the treatment.

Two weeks before surgery you must refrain from taking any medication containing aspirin e. You may take Ponstan, Panadol or Voltaren as an alternative painkiller, if required.

If you are unsure about the best choice of medication, please feel free to consult us at any time. The Operation On the day of the operation you will arrive at the Pyramid Clinic one and a half to two hours before your scheduled surgery.

The nursing staff and specialists will prepare you for the operation ahead. Your specialist will also go through the details of your operation with you again and the anaesthetist will explain the planned anaesthetic procedure.

The volume of the new breast will depend on the amount of available breast tissue. A classic breast lift involves the breast mound being remodelled internally and the skin lifted over it.

In such cases, the volume of the breast remains the same, but the shape of the breast is improved and lifted.

The incision runs around the areola and in a vertical line extending in a downward direction. In some cases another incision is required along the line of your natural breast crease.

The procedure takes about two hours and may be performed under regional or general anaesthetic. We recommend staying in the clinic for one or two nights after surgery.

After Surgery After the operation, your breasts will be bound with a firmly fitting support VI.

The following day the tubes used to drain blood and secretions from the wound will be removed. Then you will be able to leave the clinic.

A week later the support bandage will be removed and replaced by a sports bra. This takes over the role of the support bandage and should be worn day and night for a further three weeks.

After four to six weeks, all signs of the operation should have substantially healed. In every other respect, be sure to follow the exact instructions of your specialist or nurse.

What are the risks posed by breast lift surgery? As a general rule, any operation carries with it certain risks e. The specialist will discuss any potential risks with you as part of the consultation process and in preparation for surgery.

What does breast lift surgery cost? The cost of any treatment depends on the kind and extent of surgical intervention involved and can only be determined as part of a private consultation session and a medical examination.

If you decide to proceed with surgery, you will receive a detailed quote for all costs. The total amount must be paid no later than one month in advance of treatment, to ensure confirmation of the scheduled operation.

This advance payment, which is standard practice in the private health sector, is required so that the necessary preparations for your surgery can be made.

Are the costs of this surgery covered by health insurance? The costs of breast lift surgery are not covered by health insurance, as it is considered purely cosmetic surgery.

In the case of patients requiring simultaneous breast reduction surgery deemed medically necessary, partial cover or even full cover is possible.

However, any partial or full cover of costs by your health insurance company will depend on provision of a comprehensive medical report.

Will breast lift surgery leave any permanent scarring? Normally breast reduction surgery will leave faint, light scars that are scarcely noticeable.

Due to the removal of tissue and skin from the breasts, the position of the nipples will change. To ensure an aesthetically pleasing result is achieved, the areola will be adjusted to suit the new breast and the nipple lifted into its new position.

This is normally achieved without any loss of sensation as a result. Das Resultat nennt man umgangssprachlich da die meisten Implantate aus Silikon sind auch Silikonbusen.

Das durchschnittliche Alter der Patientinnen sinkt von Jahr zu Jahr kontinuierlich. Dies ist unter anderem dann der Fall, wenn eine entstellende Fehlbildung der weiblichen Brust vorliegt, die eine Erkrankung im Sinne des Sozialgesetzbuches ist.

Die Kassen zahlen auch die Brustrekonstruktion mit Silikonimplantaten nach Brustamputation wegen einer Krebserkrankung. Was kann durch eine Brustaugmentation erreicht werden?

Wir werden mit Ihnen auch besprechen, wie z. Unter gewissen Voraussetzungen, wie z. Was haben Sie nach der Operation zu erwarten, und wie viele Schmerzen werden Sie haben?

Es ist wichtig, dass Sie die Medikamente, die wir Ihnen verschrieben haben, auch einnehmen. Jemand sollte Sie unbedingt abholen und nach Hause fahren.

Wie lange dauert es, bis Sie sich wieder erholt haben? Es ist sehr wichtig, dass Sie den Ablauf nach der Operation genau mit uns besprechen.

Wenn Sie unsere Anweisungen befolgen, sollten Sie sich problemlos und schnell von dem Eingriff erholen.

Nach einigen Tagen wird der Verband abgenommen. Nicht schwanger sind und nicht stillen in gutem allgemeinen Gesundheitszustand sind psychisch stabil sind ihr Aussehen verbessern wollen realistische Erwartungen haben, bisher noch keine Brustoperation gehabt haben.

Bis heute konnte jedoch kein Zusammenhang mit der Entstehung von Brustkrebs oder Rheuma nachgewiesen werden. Infektion, Nachblutungen, Risiken der Narkose oder die Notwendigkeit von weiteren Korrekturoperationen.

Vor allem dann sichtbar, wenn sich das Implantat bewegt. In diesem Fall sollte das Implantat ausgetauscht werden.

DEF 1a Plastic surgery to enlarge the breast, often by insertion of an implant. Many women are not completely happy with VI. The desire for corrective breast surgery may also stem from a congenital malformation.

For many women, the size or shape of their breasts is not only a question of their figure but also an essential part of their self worth.

Their attitude to their own body and ultimately their sexuality may be severely impaired by breasts they consider to be too small.

Today women who are unhappy with the size or shape of their breasts have many options for changing them and bringing their personal perception into line with their physical appearance.

Breast augmentation is sought by many women of all different age categories. Most women want naturally augmented breasts that are in harmony with the rest of their figure.

Before surgery You will first discuss your concerns with one of our specialists during a personal consultation session. The two of you will decide whether breast augmentation is appropriate in your case and what form it might take.

Your new bust size and shape will also be part of an in-depth discussion. We do our utmost to meet your expectations about size and shape in proportion to your existing figure and in the interests of achieving the most harmonious and natural result possible.

For technical, medical and ethical reasons, we advise against any excessive enlargement of the bust. For breast augmentation, we use only the very latest, high quality implants.

These are made from textured silicon and give the breast more volume and firmness. The advantage of using this particular type of implant is that they cannot leak and they also produce very attractive, natural results.

The surgery itself requires an incision, either in the crease below the breast, around the areola or in the armpit. The implant is then inserted and, depending on the condition of your soft tissue, positioned above or below the breast muscle.

Breast augmentation is normally performed under a general anaesthetic and takes about an hour and a quarter. After Surgery On the day after the operation, the tubes used to drain blood and secretions from the wound will be removed.

You will have to wear a firmly fitting, support bandage around your bust until the fourth day, when this is replaced by a sports bra.

You VI. After six to eight weeks, all signs of the operation should have substantially healed. Initially you will feel a slight pressure sensation.

Implants positioned under the muscle may cause slightly more pain in the first two weeks. For a few weeks or in rare cases a little longer, you may feel as though something is missing or has changed.

This feeling passes in most cases with time. In rare cases, a patient may complain during the first six weeks of a foreign object sensation.

It is important to keep the breast area stable, to allow the implant to settle in and heal as well as possible.

Will breast augmentation leave any permanent scarring? The four and a half to five centimetre long scar will either be under the crease of your breast, around the areola or in the armpit.

After the full healing period has passed it is normally scarcely visible. The pros and cons of each technique will be discussed with you beforehand.

Do the implants have to be replaced after a certain time? As in the case of any procedure involving the introduction of foreign objects or implants, further surgery some years after the original breast augmentation procedure cannot be ruled out.

The reason why a replacement might become necessary has nothing to do with the durability of the implants themselves, but depends on any changes occurring in your own body.

For instance, the likelihood of requiring a replacement increases with age. However, routine replacement every ten years, as is sometimes recommended, is not necessary.

Based on our experience with the latest silicon implants, you can expect them to last a long time. Which implants are the most commonly used?

There is a basic distinction made between implants filled with saline or silicone. Will I be able to notice the implants afterwards?

Very slim patients with little underlying fatty tissue may experience some sensitivity. However, in most cases, the implant is not visible from the outside.

What are the risks posed by breast augmentation? Capsular contracture is one specific risk related to implants. This is a natural reaction to a foreign object, whereby the body forms a sheath of connective tissue around the implant.

As this layer of tissue contracts, the implant becomes tighter and the breast will feel harder. In severe cases, corrective surgery may be required to remove the scar tissue.

This often goes hand in hand with an implant replacement. Is it possible to breastfeed after breast augmentation?

Breast augmentation does not affect your ability to breastfeed, as the implant is positioned behind the milk ducts.

Extensive studies show that breast implants pose no increased risk of breast cancer. Depending on your occupation, you should allow for at least four days off work.

What does breast augmentation cost? Are the costs covered by health insurance? Breast augmentation is not covered by health insurance.

However, if capsular contracture occurs at a later stage, the costs may be partly covered. In , , breast augmentation procedures were performed in the U.

TED Brustverkleinerung N. Die Indikation, d. Eine relative Indikation ist der Wunsch nach einer kosmetischen Verbesserung.

Die Operation erfolgt in Narkose. Es existieren zahlreiche verschiedene Operationstechniken, die Ergebnisse VI.

Die Patientinnen sind in der Regel sehr dankbar, da sie eine deutliche Erleichterung ihrer Beschwerden erfahren.

Die Narben sind nach der Operation sichtbar und werden gelegentlich durch den Zug der Brust auch breiter. Leistungspflicht Ihrer Krankenkasse.

Wie kann Ihnen eine Brustverkleinerung helfen? Es kann sein, dass Sie ein Notwendigkeitsschreiben von uns und Ihrem Hausarzt bzw.

Der Brustwarzenhof wird umschnitten und dieser Schnitt wird dann bis in die Unterbrustfalte fortgesetzt. Bei einigen Frauen kann evtl.

Eventuell kann auch eine Fettabsaugung bei der Brustverkleinerung Anwendung finden. Diese Methode hat den Vorteil, dass die Narben kaum sichtbar sind.

Eine Brustreduktionsplastik dauert etwa Stunden. Wie viele Schmerzen werden Sie haben? Nach einigen Tagen wird das jedoch besser.

Der Verband wird nach einigen Tagen entfernt werden. Risiken: Jede Operation beinhaltet gewisse Risiken, so z.

Blutungen, Reaktionen auf das Narkosemittel und Infektionen. DEF 1a Surgical reduction of breast size in order to reduce the weight of the breasts and relieve symptoms from unusually large, pendulous breasts.

The surgical procedure is also known as reduction mammaplasty. The weight of very large breasts can cause back strain and discomfort.

The bra straps can cut into the shoulders, produce permanent grooves and even scar them. The contact of the breasts and the lower chest wall can create a chronic skin irritation called intertriginous dermatitis.

Very large breasts may interfere with the ability to exercise. The breasts are reshaped to form smaller breasts and the nipple and areola are repositioned.

Breast reduction can also be used to even up the size of the breasts where one is much larger than the other, a condition known as unilateral macromastia mammary hyperplasia.

Breast reduction is not recommended for young women whose breasts are not yet fully developed or for women who plan to breast feed since the surgery may impair the ability to breastfeed.

The surgery may also result in decreased feeling in the breasts or nipples. Only the women concerned will fully appreciate the physical, sporting and even sexual restrictions that are associated with this problem.

Heavy, sagging breasts can sometimes be very uncomfortable and cause chronic pain in the back and shoulder area.

In the worst cases they can even lead to spinal problems and postural damage. Over time, for young women in particular, it may develop into an unnecessary psychological burden.

However, the important proviso is that the woman has stopped growing and the breasts are fully developed. The procedure can still be performed on older patients, provided their general state of health is good enough to allow such an operation to proceed.

You will first discuss your concerns with one of our specialists during a personal consultation session. The two of you will decide whether breast reduction is appropriate in your case and what form it might take.

The Operation On the day of the operation you will arrive at the Pyramid Clinic two hours before your scheduled surgery. Smaller, lighter and firmer breasts can be achieved by removing superfluous skin, fat and glandular tissue in the lower breast area.

A new breast is formed out of the remaining upper sections by internally remodelling the breast mound and lifting the skin over it. The areola is reduced in size and the nipple raised into its new position.

The procedure takes about two and a half hours and is performed under general anaesthetic. After Surgery On the day after the operation, your breasts will be bound with a firmly fitting support bandage.

After surgery, there may be some swelling and loss of sensation in the breasts, which should disappear in most cases after a few weeks. Postoperative pain is extremely rare.

It may take some weeks before normal sensation in the breasts is restored. For some time after the operation it is advisable to wear a comfortable bra that is gentle on the skin.

To ensure optimal healing, we recommend you take it easy for a period of up to six weeks particularly with regard to sport and physical activity.

Will breast reduction leave any permanent scarring? What are the risks posed by breast reduction? What does breast reduction surgery cost?

Are the costs of this procedure covered by health insurance? Because large, heavy breasts may constitute a health problem, e.

DEF The pigmented projection on the surface of the breast. In the mature female, ducts that conduct milk from the mammary glands to the surface of the breast exit through the nipple.

The surrounding flat area of pigmentation is the areola. TEE CE marking n. DEF The CE marking symbolizes the conformity of a product to the Community requirements incumbent on the manufacturer of the product.

It indicates that the product conforms with all the Community provisions providing for its affixing. The marking should be affixed prior to the product being placed on the European market and entering into service.

Scope The Decision lays down rules for affixing the CE conformity marking concerning the design, manufacture, placing on the market and entry into service of a product.

These products may circulate freely on the European market if they are accompanied by, for example, a declaration or certificate of conformity.

Responsibility of manufacturers The CE marking must be affixed by the manufacturer or his agent established within the Community.

The manufacturer bears ultimate responsibility for the conformity of the product. Conformity assessment relates to the design and production phases of the product.

Depending on the conformity assessment procedures applied, a notified body may be involved in these two phases. If the notified body is involved in the production control phase, its identification number will follow the CE marking.

As the market leader in this area, we offer a range of breast implants. The surgeon will talk through with you the most suitable type for you, depending on your particular body and the results you want.

And we only use breast implants that have been awarded the European CE mark for quality assurance.

Diese unspezifische Wirkung ruft bei einigen Formen der Chemotherapie schwere Nebenwirkungen hervor. Bei einigen Krebserkrankungen im Kindesalter wird eine Heilung angestrebt, bei Erwachsenen gelingt dies jedoch selten.

Heutzutage werden viele verschiedene Mittel zur Chemotherapie verwendet, je nach den zu behandelnden Krebserkrankungen.

Nach einer Chemotherapie sind normale Zellen offensichtlich eher in der Lage, sich zu regenerieren nachzuwachsen und das betroffene Gewebe wiederherzustellen.

Ist dies nicht der Fall, ist ein Wiederauftreten des Tumors an derselben Stelle sehr wahrscheinlich. Eine dieser Gruppen bilden die so genannten Alkylanzien.

Eine zweite Gruppe bilden die Antimetaboliten. Gelegentlich eignen sich diese Medikamente auch zur Behandlung von Krebserkrankungen von Kopf und Hals.

Eine dritte Gruppe stellen die Purinantagonisten dar. Mercaptopurin und Tioguanin TG. Die letzte Gruppe bilden die zytotoxischen Antibiotika und pflanzlichen Alkaloide.

Es gibt noch verschiedene andere Chemotherapeutika, z. Hydroxycarbamid, Procarbazin und Asparaginase, die alle das Wachstum der Tumorzellen hemmen.

Interferone, die normalerweise von viral VI. DEF 1a Chemotherapy, in its broadest sense, refers to the treatment of disease with chemicals.

In current usage, however, the term applies primarily to the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. When used to refer to infectious diseases, the term is antimicrobial chemotherapy.

Antimicrobial chemotherapy can be used either for prophylaxis prevention or treatment cure of disease caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, or helminths.

Cancer chemotherapy uses synthetic chemicals and antibiotics that can differentiate to some degree between normal tissue cells and cancer cells.

Chemotherapy is used in the treatment of cancer; no therapeutic agents are available for the prevention of cancer.

The dramatic progress made in the transplantation oftissue and organs has been due, in part, to the use of chemicals that modify the immune response in recipients of these tissue and organs.

Oncologists use about 50 different chemotherapeutic drugs to combat cancer, generally administering more than one drug at a time because these drugs are more powerful when combined.

In some cases, the drugs cause programmed cell death. Many leukemias and lymphomas and cancer of the testicles are successfully treated with chemotherapy.

Breast, lung, colorectal, and prostate cancer are not currently curable with chemotherapy alone, so chemotherapy is often used in combination with other therapies.

In fact, the most common combination of cancer treatments is surgery or radiation therapy followed by chemotherapy. Chemotherapy often causes severe side effects, particularly reduced resistance to infection, internal bleeding, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and insufficient oxygen in the blood, known as anemia.

Some tumors develop resistance to many drugs after exposure to just one drug, a condition called multidrug resistance.

When this happens, there may be no drugs that are effective against the tumor. DEF 1 Ligament: In anatomy, tough band of slightly elastic connective tissue, made of a fibrous protein known as collagen.

One type of ligament, such as a collateral ligament of the elbow or knee, holds together bones and cartilage at a joint.

This white, shiny ligament provides flexibility for freedom of movement and, at the same time, prevents the bones from moving too far apart.

Another type of ligament is thickened tissue that surrounds and directly reinforces a joint, such as the shoulder and hip. Ligaments of yellow elastic tissue connect adjoining vertebrae in the spine.

Ligaments also support abdominal organs, such as the liver, kidneys, spleen, bladder, uterus, and diaphragm, and help maintain the shape of the breasts.

These ligaments are extensions of membranes covering the organs, or sheets of fibrous tissue. DEF 1a A neurologic or pharmacologic state in which painful stimuli are moderated such that, although still perceived, they are no longer painful.

An analgesic see DEF 2 , or painrelieving drug such as aspirin, may relieve a headache, but a person who takes an aspirin still feels other physical sensations, such as pressure, heat, cold, and vibration.

Pain is a crucial warning system that tells us when our bodies are in danger, but without anesthesia, pain would make surgery and various other medical procedures much more difficult - or even impossible.

Dieser technisch-wissenschaftliche Verein bildet gemeinsam mit seinen Tochtergesellschaften z. Der DIN e. Im Bereich der Datenverarbeitung gibt es zahlreiche Normen z.

Durch die Entstehungsweise der Normen soll sichergestellt werden, dass die Inhalte und Verfahrenstechniken den allgemein anerkannten Regeln der Technik entsprechen.

However, there are currently around thirty thousand DIN Standards, covering almost all fields of technology.

One of the earliest, and surely the most well-known, is DIN , the standard that introduced the A-series paper sizes in This was later adopted as international standard ISO in DIN is a registered association e.

Its headquarters is in Berlin. Since it has been recognized by the German government as the national standards body and represents German interests at international and European level.

A tube may need to be inserted to help the drainage of fluids. Usually patients are able to return home the day following surgery and able to move around in a day or two when bandages and drainage tubes are removed.

Hormone wie das Insulin direkt ins Blut ab. DEF 1a Cell or tissue that removes specific substances from the blood, alters or concentrates them, and then either releases them for further use or eliminates them.

Typically, a gland consists of either cuboidal or columnar epithelium resting on a basement membrane and is surrounded by a plexus, or meshwork, of blood vessels.

Endocrine, or ductless, glands e. Exocrine glands e. Types of the simple tubular and the simple saccular glands are, respectively, the sweat and the sebaceous glands.

The kidney is a compound tubular gland, and the tear-producing glands are compound saccular. The so-called lymph glands are erroneously named and are in reality nodes.

Bindegewebsanteile machen die Brust elastisch und fest. Each lobe is subdivided into many smaller lobules, separated by broad fibrous suspensory bands, which connect the skin with the sheet of connective tissue that covers the pectoral muscles beneath the breast.

Der Warzenvorhof hat eine zentrale Vertiefung mit einem kleinen Randwall. Bei dem Druck zwischen Daumen und Zeigefinger zieht sich die Brustwarze noch mehr nach innen.

DEF 1a Inverted nipples can cause both cosmetic and functional problems. During breast feeding infants are usually unable to suckle effectively due to lack of nipple projection.

Now re-install and you should be fine. Ideal candidates for breast lift or mastopexy surgery are women who are pleased with the size of their breast when wearing a bra and those patients with good quality skin with few stretch Ewige Helden 2019 Winter. DEF 1 breast: One of a pair of see more organs in mammals that secrete milk for newborns and infants. This lets multiple computers connect to the same server. Article source synchronized, the net effect is to maintain a single logical channel. Click Start and Run. Zu Beginn treten schmerzlose, meist derbe, schlecht, langsam wachsende Knoten auf. Finally, you can type in special characters by using HTML entities. BRCA breast cancer genes L'exemple de la figure C-2 indique l'adresse IP A: Der Standard-Sperrcode lautet Https:// can edit individual entries by clicking on them and then clicking the Change the location this click at this page points to button. Der sprachliche Kontext hingegen soll die typisch fachsprachliche Verwendung einer Benennung, die als fachsprachliche Wendung bezeichnet wird, angeben. Ensure that it is connected and Perfide on.

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